Thursday, July 11, 2019

Estimating the Value of 0% Financing

I recently helped a family member buy a new car. She was paying cash for the car, so we had to estimate the value of the 0% financing offered to figure out a sensible price to pay for the car.

The key factors that matter for estimating the value of low financing interest rates are duration and interest rate reduction. For example, suppose financing is offered for 4 years at a rate that is 4% below a competitive interest rate. This is a total of 4x4%=16%. However, if the car will be paid off over 4 years, the average balance owing will be close to half the price of the car. So, the value of the financing is about 8%.

For this example, you can reduce the car’s MSRP by 8% as a starting point for a cash sale negotiation. This is equivalent to paying the full MSRP and taking the financing. From there you can negotiate down from the adjusted MSRP.

It was interesting to talk to multiple dealerships and take this approach. A couple just pretended they didn’t know what I was talking about. They played it initially like they never heard of financing having a cash value. The place we eventually bought the car from immediately applied a cash-back figure that represented the value of low-interest financing.

A complicating factor was that I made a mistake initially with valuing the financing. I forgot about the average balance owing being only half the price of the car. So, I initially thought the financing was twice as valuable as it really was.

In the end, the price we got appeared to be better than indicated by the somewhat confusing report we downloaded from unhaggle. It’s always hard to know if you got a good or bad deal on a car, and I’m always left feeling uneasy for a while.

I don’t have much advice for most aspects of buying a car, but there are three things I’m confident about. One is how to value low-interest financing, the second is that it’s best to buy from Phil Edmonston’s Lemon-Aid guide recommended vehicle list, and the third is that it’s best to avoid debt and pay cash for cars.

Friday, July 5, 2019

Short Takes: Paying in Home Currency, Rent vs. Own, and more

Here are my posts for the past two weeks:

Switch: How to Change Things When Change is Hard

How Fast Will Your Portfolio Shrink in Retirement?

Here are some short takes and some weekend reading:

Preet Banerjee explains why you should never accept a foreign merchant’s offer to let you pay in your home currency.

Benjamin Felix compares renting to owning a home in terms of unrecoverable costs.

Big Cajun Man can probably hear the circus music after completing another round with CRA. They’ve accepted both halves of his documentation, but not both at the same time.

Tuesday, July 2, 2019

How Fast Will Your Portfolio Shrink in Retirement?

Once you’re halfway through retirement, you’d expect about half your savings to be gone, right? This turns out this is very wrong when we don’t adjust for inflation. The return your portfolio generates causes your savings to hold steady for a while and then fall off a cliff.

I read the following quote in the second edition of Victory Lap Retirement:

“A recent Employee Benefit Research Institute study found that people in the U.S. who retired with more than $500,000 in savings still had, on average, 88 percent of it left eighteen years after retirement.”

Frederick Vettese provided further detail. This 88% figure is the median rather than the average.

This statistic was used as proof that retirees aren’t spending enough. After all, if you planned on a 35-year retirement, half the money should be gone after 18 years, right? Not even close. Below is a chart of portfolio size based on the following assumptions.

- annual portfolio return of 2% above inflation
- annual withdrawals of 4% of the starting portfolio size, rising with inflation each year
- inflation of 2.12% (the average U.S. inflation from 2001 to 2018)



So, to be on track for a 35-year retirement, your remaining portfolio 18 years into retirement should be 83% of your starting portfolio size. This is a far cry from an intuitive guess that about half the money should be left.

Still, the earlier quote said the average retiree who started with at least half a million dollars had 88% of their money left 18 years into retirement. Further, thanks to a reader named Dave who found the original EBRI study online, we know that the 88% figure is inflation-adjusted.

Here is an inflation-adjusted version of the chart above:



So, 18 years into retirement in this scenario, you’d have 57% of your money left after adjusting for inflation. But the median U.S. retiree who started retirement with at least half a million dollars has 88% of the money left after adjusting for inflation. This is so high it would seem that retirees are severely underspending in retirement.

However, we have to look at the definition of retirement used in the study:

Definition of Retirement: A primary worker is identified for each household. For couples, the spouse with higher Social Security earnings is the assigned primary worker as he/she has higher average lifetime earnings. Self-reported retirement (month and year) for the primary worker in 2014 (latest survey) is used as the retirement (month and year) for the household.

So, even if the lower income spouse still works, the couple is retired. Also, because retirement is “self-reported,” we need to consider post-retirement working income. Most people who leave an office job, but make some money part-time doing a different type of work, consider themselves retired. Another significant source of money coming in is inheritances.

All these sources of post-retirement income cause retirees to draw less from their savings in early retirement to allow larger withdrawals later when they stop earning side income. This is true even for retirees who seek the largest steady inflation-adjusted spending level they can get throughout retirement.

Another factor that increases median savings levels is that some retirees have savings is in the millions and have no intention of spending all their money. Many retirees intend to leave a legacy.

If we account for the intention to leave legacies and the fact that many retirees continue to earn some income in the early phase of retirement, the gap between actual inflation-adjusted savings 18 years into retirement (median of 88%) and recommended level (57%) would shrink. How much it would shrink is hard to guess without further data on post-retirement incomes and intentions concerning legacies.

However, median figures hide the range of outcomes. You can drown in a river whose average depth is only 4 feet. These statistics include a very large number of U.S. retirees who are overspending and will run out of money. The EBRI study says that of retirees who started with at least half a million dollars, 18 years later 12% have less than one-fifth of their money left, and 32% have less than half. These retirees are at risk of running out of money before they run out of life.

The Victory Lap Retirement book and Vettese’s article promote the idea that retirees aren’t spending enough. In fact, there is a group who don’t spend enough, and another group who spend too much. We need to find a way to direct different messages to these two groups. Unfortunately, it’s the overspending group that is most likely to take comfort from books and articles claiming that retirees don’t spend enough.